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Episode 287: What Is a Sandwich?

What exactly is a sandwich?

The question is tearing the internet apart. Is a hot dog a sandwich? What about a burrito? But how do we even know what a sandwich is? Or anything else?

We have an answer, but it’s going to take us through some weird semantic territory on this episode of Talk the Talk.


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Promo with Carly Laden


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Our patrons are amazing people who keep us going. This episode is brought to you by the generosity of

Christopher F.
David W.
Julie
Zoe
Whitney
Matt
Christy
and the podcast Lingthusiasm.

Many thanks to all our patrons!

Become a Patreon supporter yourself and get access to bonus audio, extra blog posts, Talk the Talk merch, our infamous Cutting Room Floor posts, and more!

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Episode 287: What Is a Sandwich?

Cutting Room Floor 287: What Is a Sandwich? coming soon

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Show notes

Stephen Fry on God | The Meaning Of Life | RTÉ One

Stephen Fry faces blasphemy probe after God comments
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-39830447

Police launch blasphemy probe against Stephen Fry for calling ‘God’ monstrous
http://www.pinknews.co.uk/2017/05/06/police-launch-blasphemy-probe-against-stephen-fry-for-calling-god-monstrous/

BHA defends its patron Stephen Fry in face of Irish blasphemy probe
https://humanism.org.uk/2017/05/06/bha-defends-its-patron-stephen-fry-in-face-of-irish-blasphemy-probe/

Swearing Makes You Stronger And Increases Stamina, Study Finds
http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/swearing-stronger-more-stamina-strength-study-swear-words-university-keele-a7718981.html

Strong language: swearing makes you stronger, psychologists confirm
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2017/may/05/strong-language-swearing-makes-you-stronger-psychologists-confirm

Seebs, is a hotdog a sandwich?
http://glossylalia.tumblr.com/post/151262613501/seebs-is-a-hotdog-a-sandwich-i-mean-its-got-the

The sandwich alignment chart that’s tearing the internet apart
http://mashable.com/2017/05/03/sandwich-chart-hot-dog/

Kylie’s approach
Sorry, Merriam-Webster, but Hot Dogs Are Not Sandwiches
http://www.arrantpedantry.com/2016/06/15/sorry-merriam-webster-but-hot-dogs-are-not-sandwiches/

Cups and glasses: learning that boundaries are vague
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-child-language/article/cups-and-glasses-learning-that-boundaries-are-vague/4DE33B9F26DB68DB3FACBEB69DBB304B

Labov’s cups, mugs, glasses, and jugs
Google Books link

Family Resemblance in Wittgenstein
http://www.philosophy-index.com/wittgenstein/family-resemblance/

Wittgenstein: Language-games and Family Resemblance
https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/wittgenstein/#LangGameFamiRese

From Statistics to Meaning: Infants’ Acquisition of Lexical Categories
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3865606/

Twelve-Month-Old Infants Benefit From Prior Experience in Statistical Learning
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2967014/

Agate Rooms (Agate Chamber or Cold Baths)
http://saint-petersburg.guide/pushkin/agate-rooms-(agate-chamber-or-cold-baths)

A linguistic prejudice called native-speakerism (annoying ads)
https://www.dailytrust.com.ng/news/politics-of-grammar/a-linguistic-prejudice-called-native-speakerism/180756.html

Relevant Reddit thread
https://www.reddit.com/r/linguistics/comments/69j8ya/a_linguistic_prejudice_called_nativespeakerism/

Native and Nonnative Teachers of L2 Pronunciation: Effects on Learner Performance (paywall)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/tesq.272/full

TEFL Equity Advocates
https://teflequityadvocates.com

Stephen Fry blasphemy probe dropped after gardaí fail to find ‘substantial number of outraged people’
http://www.independent.ie/irish-news/stephen-fry-blasphemy-probe-dropped-after-garda-fail-to-find-substantial-number-of-outraged-people-35692915.html


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Episode 286: Lexical Appropriation (featuring Nicole Holliday)

Are some words off-limits?

Many of us are aware of cultural appropriation: using symbols and clothing that pertain to another culture without attribution. But how does this relate to language? Is it okay to use the slang that originates from other language communities? And what about descriptivism and letting language do its thing?

Daniel speaks with Nicole Holliday on this episode of Talk the Talk.


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David W.
Julie
Zoe
Whitney
Matt
Christy
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Episode 286: Lexical Appropriation (featuring Nicole Holliday) for everyone

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Show notes

Malcolm Turnbull reveals tough new citizenship crackdown
http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/speak-english-respect-our-values-malcolm-turnbulls-next-citizenship-crackdown-20170419-gvnq0y.html

PM defends tough citizenship English test
https://thewest.com.au/politics/pm-defends-tough-citizenship-english-test-ng-s-1713179

6 new requirements to acquire Australian citizenship
http://www.sbs.com.au/yourlanguage/hindi/en/article/2017/04/21/6-new-requirements-acquire-australian-citizenship

Joint Media Release with the Hon. Malcolm Turnbull MP, Prime Minister – Strengthening the integrity of Australian citizenship
http://www.minister.border.gov.au/peterdutton/Pages/Strenghening-the-integrity-of-Australian-citizenship.aspx

There is one silver lining for Indians in Australia’s tough new citizenship rules: English skills
https://qz.com/966681/there-is-one-silver-lining-for-indians-in-australias-tough-new-citizenship-rules-english-skills/

English Language Bar for Australian Citizenship Likely to Further Disadvantage Refugees
https://theconversation.com/english-language-bar-for-citizenship-likely-to-further-disadvantage-refugees-76520

Henry Sherrell: English language testing and the exclusion of Australian citizenship
https://henrysherrell.wordpress.com/2017/04/24/english-language-testing-and-the-exclusion-of-australian-citizenship/

Nicole Holliday: When is lexical innovation cultural appropriation?
http://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2017/04/cultural-appropriation-lexical-innovation/

Golden Pig, Coffin Man and Noodles: When Asian tattoos don’t turn out quite as planned
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2190806/Golden-Pig-Coffin-Man-Noodles-When-Asian-tattoos-dont-turn-quite-planned.html

Manipulation, abuse, deceit: How I learnt about ‘stealthing’ from a Tinder date
http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/programs/hack/manipulation-abuse-deceitl-how-i-learnt-about-stealthing/8480696

Man Convicted of Rape After Removing Condom During Sex Without Consent
https://broadly.vice.com/en_us/article/man-convicted-of-rape-after-removing-condom-during-sex-without-consent

‘Rape-Adjacent’: Imagining Legal Responses to Nonconsensual Condom Removal
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2954726

Boris Johnson attacks ‘mutton-headed mugwump’ Jeremy Corbyn
https://www.politicshome.com/news/uk/political-parties/conservative-party/boris-johnson/news/85431/boris-johnson-attacks-mutton

Wiktionary: mugwump
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/mugwump

Online Etymology Dictionary: mugwump
http://etymonline.com/index.php?term=mugwump&allowed_in_frame=1


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Episode 285: Quick Shots

For this episode, we put out the call to listeners, and they responded. Daniel’s taking questions and giving answers.

Should we be fustrated or listen to vinyls? Is a movie based on or based off a true story? How do you recognise gaslighting? What does a linguistics career look like? And have you got another think coming?

Daniel answers them all and more on this episode of Talk the Talk.


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Christopher F.
Julie
Zoe
Whitney
Matt
Christy
and the wonderful podcast Lingthusiasm.

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Show notes

Google Books: fustrated
Google Books link

Online Etymology Dictionary: fustrate
http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=frustrate&allowed_in_frame=0

Grammarist: Another think coming
http://grammarist.com/usage/another-think-coming/

The Truth About Black Twitter
https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/04/the-truth-about-black-twitter/390120/

Why Black Twitter Is Bigger Than Any One Story
http://www.rollingstone.com/culture/news/black-twitter-contains-multitudes-20150716

Black Twitter’s hilarious verification questions to prevent racist infiltration
https://qz.com/864372/black-twitters-twtr-hilarious-verification-questions-to-prevent-racist-infiltration/

What can you do with linguistics?

5 Common Phrases You May Not Realize Are Gaslighting
https://www.bustle.com/articles/132207-5-common-phrases-you-may-not-realize-are-gaslighting

From Theater to Therapy to Twitter, the Eerie History of Gaslighting
http://www.slate.com/blogs/lexicon_valley/2016/04/18/the_history_of_gaslighting_from_films_to_psychoanalysis_to_politics.html


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Episode 284: Feral Children

What can we learn about language from children who grew up without it?

People are fascinated by stories of “feral children”, raised apart from human contact. Can these children ever learn language, once they’re found? And what does this tell us about the human language faculty?

Daniel and Ben take a critical look at the stories on this episode of Talk the Talk.


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Promo with Jane Hebiton


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You are tremendous human beings! But not colossal anything, because apparently colossal is only for bad things.

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Show notes

AI programs exhibit racial and gender biases, research reveals
https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/apr/13/ai-programs-exhibit-racist-and-sexist-biases-research-reveals

Scientists Taught A Robot Language. It Immediately Turned Racist.
https://www.buzzfeed.com/nidhisubbaraman/robot-racism-through-language

An AI stereotype catcher
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/356/6334/133

Google searches expose racial bias, says study of names
http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-21322183

The ‘three black teenagers’ search shows it is society, not Google, that is racist
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jun/10/three-black-teenagers-google-racist-tweet

Meet the 8-year-old girl raised by monkeys
http://nypost.com/2017/04/06/meet-the-8-year-old-girl-raised-by-monkeys/

Girl found living with monkeys in Indian forest
https://apnews.com/9bb6522fe5c642a38a62bd7f99b23708

Indian girl found in jungle was not living with monkeys, officials say
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/apr/08/indian-girl-found-in-jungle-was-not-living-with-monkeys-officials-say

Elissa Newport: Contrasting Conceptions of the Critical Period for Language
Google Books link

The History of Herodotus
http://classics.mit.edu/Herodotus/history.2.ii.html

Erik The Flutemaker: Egyptian Flute (used with permission)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XnyW3R-v19Y

Erik’s YouTube channel
https://www.youtube.com/user/theflutemaker

The King of Scotland’s Peculiar Language Experiment
http://mentalfloss.com/article/75378/king-scotlands-peculiar-language-experiment

A creepy 15th century language experiment took place on this island
http://io9.gizmodo.com/a-creepy-15th-century-language-experiment-took-place-on-1484724484?IR=T

Peter Mundy’s account of Emperor Akbar
Google Books link

The Critical Period for Language Acquisition and Feral Children
https://sites.psu.edu/psych256sp16/2016/04/21/the-critical-period-for-language-acquisition-and-feral-children/

Wikipedia: Amala and Kamala
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amala_and_Kamala

Starved, tortured, forgotten: Genie, the feral child who left a mark on researchers
https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/jul/14/genie-feral-child-los-angeles-researchers

The Heartbreaking Story Of Genie, A Feral Child Who Will Never Learn To Communicate
https://www.businessinsider.com.au/critical-period-for-language-acquisition-2013-10#xFbIh50RV7uI6TRo.99

Feral Children in Fact and Fiction
http://www.centerforinquiry.net/blogs/entry/feral_children_in_fact_and_fiction/

Urban Dictionary: re-accommodate
http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=re-accommodate

Flight or fight? United’s ‘re-accommodation’ of passenger a colossal mistake
http://www.smh.com.au/business/aviation/flight-or-fight-uniteds-reaccommodation-of-passenger-a-colossal-mistake-20170410-gvi842.html

United C.E.O. offers the worst possible response to the airline’s P.R. disaster
http://www.vanityfair.com/news/2017/04/united-airlines-oscar-munoz

New United logo
http://imgur.com/gallery/SQLY2

Wiktionary: voluntell
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/voluntell

The Rice University Neologisms Database: voluntold
http://neologisms.rice.edu/index.php?a=term&d=1&t=7413

Slate: Why Do We Hate Certain Words? The curious phenomenon of word aversion.
http://www.slate.com/articles/life/the_good_word/2013/04/word_aversion_hate_moist_slacks_crevice_why_do_people_hate_words.html

Urban Dictionary: jawn
http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=jawn

The Enduring Mystery Of ‘Jawn’, Philadelphia’s All-Purpose Noun
http://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/the-enduring-mystery-of-jawn-philadelphias-allpurpose-noun

Read This: The history of “jawn,” Philadelphia’s favorite all-purpose word
http://www.avclub.com/article/read-history-jawn-philadelphias-favorite-all-purpo-234368

Funky 4+1 Thats The Joint (Vinyl High Quality)
https://youtu.be/FzuskHUux6U

Language Hat: JAWN.
http://languagehat.com/jawn/


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Episode 283: Pun Intended (featuring Janani Krishnan-Jha and Hedvig Skirgård)

Puns. Some people love them, some people hate them.

But why do some people find puns so exasperating? And why do we make them anyway? What’s it like to be on the receiving end of a rapid-fire pun off?

Daniel and Kylie are going against the groan on this episode of Talk the Talk.


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Julie,
Christopher F.
David W.
Zoe
Whitney
Matt
Christy
and the wonderful podcast Lingthusiasm.

We appreciate your support!

Become a Patreon supporter yourself and get access to bonus audio, extra blog posts, Talk the Talk merch, our infamous Cutting Room Floor posts, and more!

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Show notes

The Great Language Game
https://greatlanguagegame.com

Paper: Why are some languages confused for others? Investigating data from the Great Language Game
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0165934

The great language game: Confusing languages
http://www.replicatedtypo.com/the-great-language-game-confusing-languages/7926.html

Linguistic and cultural knowledge affect whether languages are identified correctly
https://phys.org/news/2017-04-linguistic-cultural-knowledge-affect-languages.html

Linquest
https://www.languageininteraction.nl/lingquest.html

College Humour: Puns Intended
https://www.facebook.com/CollegeHumor/videos/vb.6363207806/10154267590532807/?type=3&theater

O.Henry Pun-Off World Championships
http://punoff.com

Watch Janani in action at the O. Henry Pun-off!

2016 O.Henry Pun-Off World Championships semi-final round (Janani Krishna-Jha vs Jerzy Gwiazdowski

John Pollack: The Pun Also Rises
http://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/307465/the-pun-also-rises-by-john-pollack/9781592406753/

Linguistic Anarchy! It’s All Pun And Games Until Somebody Loses a Sign
https://daily.jstor.org/linguistic-anarchy-pun-games-somebody-loses-sign/

What is a pun?
http://www-01.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/whatisapun.htm

Goodreads: Quotes About Puns
http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/puns

Monday Punday: A weekly game
http://mondaypunday.com/325

The Greatest Jokes Ever Told
http://www.esquire.com/entertainment/a35136/greatest-jokes-ever-told/

Tearable Puns
http://www.tearablepuns.org

Why Do Puns Make People Groan?
https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/07/why-do-puns-make-people-groan/398252/

Meet the ‘Grammar Vigilante’ of Bristol
http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-39459831

The ‘Apostrophiser’
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08kys4c

Who do you think you’re apostrophising? The dark side of grammar pedantry
https://theconversation.com/who-do-you-think-youre-apostrophising-the-dark-side-of-grammar-pedantry-75793

Are you a friendly language police?
https://educationallinguist.wordpress.com/2016/02/03/are-you-a-friendly-language-police/


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Episode 282: Why Subject First? (featuring Hedvig Skirgård)

This episode going to love you are!

Here’s a linguistic puzzle: Why does “I like you” sound okay, but “Like you I” sounds weird and Yoda-ish? Well, that’s just how English rolls: subjects come first. But surprisingly, most other human languages put their subjects first, too. But why?

Ben, Daniel, and Hedvig get structural on this episode of Talk the Talk.


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Promo with Kylie Sturgess


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Julie is our newest patron — welcome aboard! Our patrons keep us (and RTRFM) going. Among them are: Christopher F., David W., Zoe, Whitney, Matt, Christy, and the podcast Lingthusiasm. Many thanks to all our patrons for keeping the flag of public linguistics flying!

Become a Patreon supporter yourself and get access to bonus audio, extra blog posts, Talk the Talk merch, our infamous Cutting Room Floor posts, and more!

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Show notes

Hedvig’s blog: Humans Who Read Grammars
http://humans-who-read-grammars.blogspot.com

Sarcasm looks the same in the brain whether it’s words or emoji
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/sarcasm-looks-same-brain-whether-its-words-or-emoji

Smiley Lore 🙂
https://www.cs.cmu.edu/~sef/sefSmiley.htm

Gender-neutral emoji approved for 2017
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2017/03/28/gender-neutral-emoji-approved-2017/

10 Important Conversations We Can Finally Have With the 69 New Emojis Just Announced
http://www.eonline.com/news/839141/10-important-conversations-we-can-finally-have-with-the-69-new-emojis-just-announced

This Year’s New Emoji Include a Hedgehog, Barf, and Brain, and, Yes, Finally, a Merman
http://nymag.com/selectall/2017/03/these-69-new-emoji-might-be-coming-to-your-phone-soon.html

Final 2017 Emoji List
http://blog.emojipedia.org/final-2017-emoji-list/

Reply All: #69 Disappeared (about YAAAS)
https://gimletmedia.com/episode/69-disappeared/

Feature 81A: Order of Subject, Object and Verb
http://wals.info/feature/81A#1/18/153

How to Understand the Deep Structures of Language
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-to-understand-the-deep-structures-of-language/

Charades reveals a universal sentence structure
https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn14228-charades-reveals-a-universal-sentence-structure/

At the origin of language structure
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150827083532.htm

Charades does not reveal a universal sentence structure II
http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=326

Why are some word orders more common than others? A uniform information density account
http://papers.nips.cc/paper/4085-why-are-some-word-orders-more-common-than-others-a-uniform-information-density-account.pdf

Political correctness: how the right invented a phantom enemy
https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/nov/30/political-correctness-how-the-right-invented-phantom-enemy-donald-trump


Show tunes

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Episode 281: The Emoji Code (featuring Vyvyan Evans)

Why does everyone ❤️ and 😡 emoji?

Emoji have been received enthusiastically in our electronic communication, and yet complaints about them continue. Is there anything wrong with using them? Are they really the equivalent of modern-day hieroglyphics? Do they represent a step backwards?

Daniel and Ben speak with digital communications expert Vyvyan Evans, author of The Emoji Code, on this episode of Talk the Talk.


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Promo with Jane Hebiton


Patreon supporters

Our community of patrons continues to burgeon, and now includes Christopher F., David W., Matt, Christy, Zoe, and Whitney. We’re also supported by a new podcast: Lingthusiasm! We’re happy to have all our patrons backing us. You’re helping us to keep the talk happening!

Become a Patreon supporter yourself and get access to bonus audio, extra blog posts, Talk the Talk merch, our infamous Cutting Room Floor posts, and more!

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Episode 281: The Emoji Code (featuring Vyvyan Evans) [128 kbps] for everyone

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Show notes

AP style change: Singular they is acceptable ‘in limited cases’
https://www.poynter.org/2017/ap-style-change-singular-they-is-acceptable-in-limited-cases/453356/

Question from ACES2015: Is it time to accept ‘they’ as a singular pronoun?
https://www.poynter.org/2015/question-from-aces2015-is-it-time-to-accept-they-as-a-singular-pronoun/330339/

Controversy over emojis used in NAPLAN practice questions
http://www.news.com.au/technology/gadgets/mobile-phones/controversy-over-emojis-used-in-naplan-practice-questions/news-story/a05c4fb508d5d7bd54749ef13faa75b2

Emojis in sample NAPLAN test cause alarm amongst educators | Herald Sun
http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/national/emojis-in-sample-naplan-test-cause-alarm-amongst-educators/news-story/367d293fb70e67210474fb153007f708

NAPLAN: using emoji to test English | The Courier-Mail
http://www.couriermail.com.au/news/opinion/opinion-classic-literary-texts-beats-dumb-txts/news-story/15e9f2f3ba5d7183d0b7164facab2b9e

Professor Vyvyan Evans
http://www.vyvevans.net

Why Millennial Pink Refuses to Go Away
http://nymag.com/thecut/2017/03/why-millennial-pink-refuses-to-go-away.html

The colour I showed Ben

When Did Girls Start Wearing Pink?
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/when-did-girls-start-wearing-pink-1370097/

The Surprisingly Recent Time Period When Boys Wore Pink, Girls Wore Blue, And Both Wore Dresses
http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2014/10/pink-used-common-color-boys-blue-girls/

Pantone: Introducing Rose Quartz & Serenity
https://www.pantone.com/color-of-the-year-2016

The evolution of Japanese color vocabulary over the past 30 years
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/03/170302090820.htm

The Evolving Poetry Of Japanese Color Names
https://www.asianscientist.com/2017/03/in-the-lab/japan-colors-terms-evolution/

There Is No Word In The English Language For This Gorgeous Color
https://www.good.is/articles/what-color-is-this

xkcd: Color Survey Results
https://blog.xkcd.com/2010/05/03/color-survey-results/

Emojipedia: Exploding Head
http://emojipedia.org/shocked-face-with-exploding-head/

These Are The 10 Most Popular Emojis Used In 2016
http://www.elle.com.au/news/zeitgeist/2016/12/most-popular-emojis-2016/

Historical Thesaurus of English: Words for underwear
http://historicalthesaurus.arts.gla.ac.uk/category/?id=53582&qsearch=underwear&word=underwear&page=1


Show tunes

Find the tracks we play on the RTRFM webpage for this episode.

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Episode 280: Contractions

They’ll, we’ve, you’re, and even ain’t.

This week, we’re having contractions, but not the muscular kind — the word kind! We squash words together all the time, but why? And how well can you recognise them?

Daniel, Kylie, and Ben are gonna find out on this episode of Talk the Talk.


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Promo with Antonino Tati


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Become a Patreon supporter yourself and get access to bonus audio, extra blog posts, Talk the Talk merch, our infamous Cutting Room Floor posts, and more!

Patreon extras for this episode

Episode 280: Contractions [128 kbps] for everyone

Cutting Room Floor 280: Contractions for patrons


Show notes

The Oxford comma: Do you or don’t you?
http://publishingresourceguide.com/writers-life/writing-ideas-inspiration/oxford-comma-yes-or-no

Oxford commas, Nelson Mandela, and Stephen King
https://stancarey.wordpress.com/2014/09/15/oxford-commas-nelson-mandela-and-stephen-king/

The Best Shots Fired in the Oxford Comma Wars
http://mentalfloss.com/article/33637/best-shots-fired-oxford-comma-wars

An Oxford comma changed this court case completely
http://edition.cnn.com/2017/03/15/health/oxford-comma-maine-court-case-trnd/index.html

A Missing Oxford Comma Just Changed the Course of a Court Case
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/missing-oxford-comma-just-changed-course-court-case-180962551/

Infographic: The Oxford comma debate
https://www.ragan.com/Main/Articles/Infographic_The_Oxford_comma_debate_52369.aspx

Wikipedia: Contraction (grammar)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contraction_(grammar)

Major Trends in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics 1 (increased use of –n’t; interesting charts)
Google Books link

Amn’t
http://www.worldwidewords.org/qa/qa-amn1.htm

The Story of Ain’t
http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=7100#more-7100

The Cockney and His Dialect
https://www.jstor.org/stable/534097?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

London dialect in Dickens
http://www.bl.uk/learning/timeline/item126779.html

Online Etymology Dictionary: won’t
http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=won%27t

Why Does “Will Not” Become “Won’t”?
http://mentalfloss.com/article/55232/why-does-will-not-become-wont

Online Etymology Dictionary: contraction
http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=contraction&searchmode=&p=3&allowed_in_frame=0

Word lengths are optimized for efficient communication
http://www.pnas.org/content/108/9/3526.long

Why “won’t” isn’t “willn’t”
http://www.grammarphobia.com/blog/2013/03/wont-willnt.html

Throw Mama From the Train: Favorite Line
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4c1sgug6prw

(principle of) least effort [Zipf’s Law]
https://www.thoughtco.com/principle-of-least-effort-zipfs-law-1691104

Understanding Zipf’s Law
http://david.pilato.fr/blog/2016/01/05/understanding-zipfs-law/

The mystery of Zipf
https://plus.maths.org/content/mystery-zipf

A mysterious law that predicts the size of the world’s biggest cities
http://io9.gizmodo.com/the-mysterious-law-that-governs-the-size-of-your-city-1479244159

Applying Zipf’s Law to galaxies
https://phys.org/news/2016-04-zipf-law-galaxies.html

Wikipedia: List of placeholder names by language
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_placeholder_names_by_language

UD: doovalacky
http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=doovalacky

MW: doohickey
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/doohickey

Chuck Berry, rock ‘n’ roll icon, dead at 90
http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-03-19/chuck-berry-rock-n-roll-icon-dies-aged-90/8367220

How Chuck Berry Wrote “Johnny B. Goode” and Created the First Rock and Roll Guitar Hero
http://www.guitarworld.com/artist-news/how-chuck-berry-wrote-johnny-b-goode-and-created-first-rock-and-roll-guitar-hero/30217

Sister Rosetta Tharpe Biography
http://www.biography.com/people/sister-rosetta-tharpe-17172332

Sister Rosetta Tharpe – Didn’t It Rain
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SR2gR6SZC2M

Vapour Trails: Revisiting Shoegaze
https://www.xlr8r.com/features/2009/01/vapour-trails-revisiting-shoegaze/

List of rock genres
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_rock_genres

Music Genres List
http://www.musicgenreslist.com

Our Least Favorite Genre Names
http://www.npr.org/sections/allsongs/2012/01/28/145858309/our-least-favorite-genre-names

Can -core survive normcore?
http://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2014/04/can-core-survive-normcore/

Slutwave, Tumblr Rap, Rape Gaze: Obscure Musical Genres Explained
http://www.laweekly.com/music/slutwave-tumblr-rap-rape-gaze-obscure-musical-genres-explained-2409158

Eminem and The Beatles: The Top-Selling Artists of the 2000s
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/eminem-and-the-beatles-the-top-selling-artists-of-the-2000s-20091209

Google Ngram Viewer: on / in an island
Control-click the lines to make similar items collapse.


Show tunes

Find the tracks we play on the RTRFM webpage for this episode.

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Episode 279: Mailbag – Competitive Edition

We’re taking your questions on a Mailbag episode!

Along the way, we’re going to find out some pretty strange things about how words and phrases got to be how they are. Do you say zero or oh? What is begging the question? And has the French /r/ always been like that?

Daniel, Ben, and Kylie answer them all on this episode of Talk the Talk.


Listen to this episode

Or listen on our Patreon page
Subscribe via iTunes
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Click here for more options: How to listen to Talk the Talk


Promo with Antonino Tati


Patreon supporters

Thanks to all our patrons for their support in this episode, including Christopher F., David W., Zoe, Whitney, Matt, and Christy. You’re helping us to keep the talk happening!

Become a Patreon supporter yourself and get access to bonus audio, extra blog posts, Talk the Talk merch, our infamous Cutting Room Floor posts, and more!

Patreon extras for this episode

Episode 279: Mailbag – Competitive Edition [128 kbps]

Cutting Room Floor 279: Mailbag – Competitive Edition for patrons


Show notes

The hazards of English spelling
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-03/lsoa-tho030917.php

Self-Organization In The Spelling Of English Suffixes: The Emergence Of Culture Out Of Anarchy
http://www.linguisticsociety.org/sites/default/files/Berg_Aronoff.pdf

The Standardization of American English
http://teachinghistory.org/history-content/ask-a-historian/25489

till (prep.)
http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=till&allowed_in_frame=0

Wikipedia: Names for the number 0 in English
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_for_the_number_0_in_English#.22O.22_.28.22oh.22.29

How many names does zero have?
http://inmadom-myenglishclass.blogspot.com.au/2011/09/how-many-names-does-zero-have.html

Why getting out for zero is called a “duck” in cricket
https://www.sportskeeda.com/cricket/why-getting-out-zero-called-duck-cricket

Begging the Question, Again
https://afterdeadline.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/09/25/begging-the-question-again/?_r=1

Begging the question: How much should we fight for a correct English usage that no one actually seems to use?
https://www.theguardian.com/media/mind-your-language/2010/may/24/begging-the-question-mind-your-language

This troublesome 3-word phrase perfectly exemplified Antonin Scalia’s obsession with originalism
https://www.businessinsider.com/beg-the-question-meaning-definition-usage-2016-4

Questions to French native speakers…
http://www.antimoon.com/forum/t16151.htm

r/French: The rolled “R”
https://www.reddit.com/r/French/comments/2wwz2y/the_rolled_r/

Rolled ‘R’ in French – what area?
http://www.forum.french-linguistics.co.uk/forum/topics/rolled-r-in-french-what-area

Studies in the History of the English Language: A Millennial Perspective
Google Books link

Flipped, rolled, trilled or other…How to deal with the French “r”?
https://dictioncorner.wordpress.com/2014/02/09/flipped-rolled-trilled-or-other-how-to-deal-with-the-french-r/

When did the trilled “r” fall out of use in French and become replaced with a uvular fricative?
https://www.quora.com/When-did-the-trilled-r-fall-out-of-use-in-French-and-become-replaced-with-a-uvular-fricative

The origin of the French uvular “R”
http://www.antimoon.com/forum/t4808-15.htm

Frozen – Let It Go (French version)
https://youtu.be/wQP9XZc2Y_c

Georges Brassens – La Mauvaise Réputation
https://youtu.be/26Nuj6dhte8

What Is the F–kboy?
http://www.slate.com/blogs/lexicon_valley/2015/08/18/what_does_fuckboy_mean.html

Green’s Dictionary of Slang
https://greensdictofslang.com

Diagram for 0800 0077 070


Show tunes

Find the tracks we play on the RTRFM webpage for this episode.

Image credit: http://www.investmentu.com/assets/images/content/2014/03/rsz_dollarphotoclub_56153912-11.jpg

Episode 278: Like (featuring Alexandra D’Arcy)

Do you, like, like LIKE?

LIKE is often used and often reviled these days, but not everyone realises that LIKE has a long history. And it follows regular patterns — patterns we seem to know instinctively, but which we have a hard time articulating. How did LIKE get this way, and should you be trying to stop using it?

Daniel talks to sociolinguist Alexandra D’Arcy on this episode of Talk the Talk.


Listen to this episode

Or listen on our Patreon page
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Promo with Kylie Sturgess


Patreon supporters

We’re very grateful for the support from our burgeoning community of patrons, including Christopher F., David W., Zoe, Whitney, Matt, and Christy. Thanks to you and all our patrons!

Did you know that if you become a Patreon supporter yourself, you’ll have access to about eight hours of bonus audio? Our Cutting Room Floor posts are where you can hear all the stuff that we didn’t have time for on the show, plus a lot of us just talking about random crap. (Some of it is actually kind of funny.) You’ll also get to listen to the full versions of all our interviews. Plus merch, blog posts, and more more more!

Patreon extras for this episode

Episode 278: Like (featuring Alexandra D’Arcy) [128 kbps]

Interview with Alexandra D’Arcy 2017-03-02 (complete) patrons only

Cutting Room Floor 278: Like patrons only


Show notes

Signs of Australia : a new dictionary of Auslan (the sign language of the Australian deaf community) / edited by Trevor Johnston
http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/377262

Coming soon: First-of-its-kind Indian sign language dictionary
http://indianexpress.com/article/india/coming-soon-first-of-its-kind-indian-sign-language-dictionary-4487058/

The people behind India’s first sign language dictionary
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-39101899

Ethnologue: Indian Sign Language
https://www.ethnologue.com/language/ins

Empowering the Deaf
http://indiansignlanguage.org

Giphy Collects Together Thousands Of Animated GIFs To Help You Learn Sign Language
https://www.lifehacker.com.au/2017/02/giphy-collects-together-thousands-of-animated-gifs-to-help-you-learn-sign-language/

Call to give sign language official status
https://www.brandsouthafrica.com/governance/services/rights/disability-051212

Sign language users have better reaction times and peripheral vision
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/02/170206084253.htm

Online Etymology Dictionary: like
http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=like

Like, OMG! ‘Like’ Is, Like, Totally Cool, Linguist Says
http://www.themillions.com/2014/02/like-omg-like-is-like-totally-cool-linguist-says.html

Like, Why Do We Use Like So Much?
http://www.slate.com/articles/podcasts/lexicon_valley/2017/02/john_mcwhorter_with_alexandra_d_arcy_on_the_word_like.html

Discourse markers are, like, important
https://www.bostonglobe.com/ideas/2017/01/21/discourse-markers-are-like-important/Y92NncxhOIiYsDWQHIkdvJ/story.html

The Proceedings of the Old Bailey, 1674-1913
https://www.oldbaileyonline.org

Wiktionary: uberize
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/uberize

How Uber Deceives the Authorities Worldwide
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/03/technology/uber-greyball-program-evade-authorities.html?_r=0

Uber’s unravelling: The stunning, 2 week string of blows that has upended the world’s most valuable startup
https://www.businessinsider.com.au/uber-scandal-recap-2017-3/?r=US&IR=T#/#sunday-february-19-the-beginning-1

Uberfy or Get Uberfied! The Psychology of Digital Disruption
http://digitalintelligencetoday.com/uberfy-or-get-uberfied-the-psychology-of-digital-disruption/

Sexism at Uber from female management #UberStory
https://medium.com/@contactkeala/sexism-at-uber-from-female-management-uberstory-238874075bbb#.w54lc2z4t

Much help from Word-Formation in English by Ingo Plag
https://books.google.com.au/books/about/Word_formation_in_English.html?id=78KFCIHtJS4C&redir_esc=y

What is the difference between the suffixes -ize and -ify
http://english.stackexchange.com/questions/189530/what-is-the-difference-between-the-suffixes-ize-and-ify


Show tunes

Find the tracks we play on the RTRFM webpage for this episode.

Image credit: http://q.likesuccess.com/114/5673721-justin-bieber-fan-humor.jpg

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